- Hot Pressing
- Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP)
- Vacuum Induction Melting (VIM)
- Vacuum Arc Remelting (VAR)
- Cold Pressing and Sintering
- Plasma Spraying
Pressing powders into near net shape or ingot form. Powder Metallurgy is used to manufacture Metals, Alloys, Cermets, Oxides, and Intermetallics when they can not be manufactured by melting. Powders are loaded into a graphite die, lowered into an Inert Gas Atmosphere, heated up to high temperatures and pressed in single direction. Available for all shapes and sizes of target materials.
Pressing of powders with high pressure and temperatures through the medium of a pressurizing gas, such as Argon or Nitrogen, to remove internal porosity and voids, thus increasing density and upgrading properties. A cost effective manufacturing method for production quantity powder metallurgy products.
Vacuum Induction Melting is used for forming exotic metals and alloys into ingot form. The VIM process is a preferred manufacturing method for creating a fully dense and homogenous blend of metals.
The starting material is loaded into a crucible that is sitting inside a water cooled induction coil. Induction melting begins when a current is sent through the coil, which then flows through the starting material. The starting material is then melted into a charge and formed into an ingot.
Vacuum Arc Remelting is used most frequently for Titanium and Titanium alloys. The rate at which the molten metal cools is more easily controlled in a VAR process vs. a VIM process. Controlled cooling is important when the microstructure of the metal or metal alloy needs to be held to tight tolerance.
Cold Pressing and Sintering is a combination of manufacturing methods used to produce ceramic oxides and other powder metallurgy products. Powders are blended and then compacted into a charge at room temperature. The charge is then placed into a sintering furnace and slowly ramped up to a high temperature for densification. The temperatures reached are below the melting points of the materials in the charge.
Plasma spraying is a method of thermal spraying. A plasma jet is used to deposit powders onto a substrate. Thicknesses can range anywhere from micrometers up to a few millimeters. The starting powder (feedstock) is sent through a plasma torch reaching temperatures up to 10,000 K. Once the powders are introduced to the plasma jet, the powders are melted and propelled onto the substrate. Plasma spraying is frequently used for Rotatable Sputtering Targets.